# BLOG

## Abacus - Visualize - Concentrate and Recall..

Abacus is the ancient tool used for the purpose of calculations. It is the first external aid used to computing math- a calculation device. While Abacus is an interesting tool that one of the very initial uses of beads comes under the topic of Mathematics. Abacus is used but throughout the timeline and it has proved to be a significant instrument of the economy.

Abacus is a Latin word that has its own origins in the Greek words abax or abakon - which means table or tablet. This tool is, in turn, originated from the Semitic word abq, means sand. The abacus is one of many types of counting devices which are used to count large numbers.

#### The modern Abacus?

Abacus has been invented In China some 2500 years ago; and it has been later spread through countries like Korea,  Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Russia, and Africa, etc. Abacus is still widely used by many merchants and clerks to visually articulate and teach mathematics. However, you can see the modern abaci made usually with wooden beads. Each country has its own way of using it and if you see the people of Japan use bicone beads to facilitate ease of movement.

While the Chinese name for abacus is Suanpan, it is used for functions other than counting. Unlike the simple counting board used in elementary schools, the Suanpan can do multiplication, addition, subtraction, division, square root, and cube root operations at high speed.

However, the modern abacus is not that old-fashioned tool. On November 12, 1946, a contest was held in Tokyo between the Japanese Soroban, used by Kiyoshi Matsuzaki, which is an electric calculator, operated by US Army Private Thomas Nathan Wood. While the basis for scoring in this contest was based on accuracy and speed of the results. There were four basic arithmetic operations and a problem solving that combines all the four. The soroban won 4 to 1 with the electric calculator existing in multiplication purpose.

#### Abacus helps you to:

•    Learn Math with ease and overcome your fears about mathematics by making arithmetic calculation easier.
•    Activate the nerve cells by providing- stimuli like moving fingers and talking out loud.
•    Practice counting and simple addition, which gives the students awareness of the groupings of 10 which are the foundation of our numeral system.
•    Make your 6 - year olds to count 100 by rote, where a slight awareness of the patterns involved.

The name for the Abacus in Japan is known as Soroban, it is taught in primary schools as a part of lessons in mathematics as the decimal numerical system can be demonstrated visually. When teaching the soroban, a song like instruction is given by the teacher to the students. Regardless of the initiation of handheld calculators, some parents send their kids to private tutors to make them learn soroban because of the proficiency in soroban calculation can be easily transformed to mental arithmetic at a highly advanced level.

However, the abacus is not only a visual learning aid but, it is also quite tactile. You see the Cranmer abacus is in common use by individuals who are blind. One can simply imagine that the bicone bead would be the perfect tangible bead to use. This is been proved as an imperative learning instrument for blind students who learn multiplication, addition, subtraction, square root, division, and cubic root. The thinking process will be taught to blind students cannot be replaced by the talking calculator, and equals the speed of the sighted student with a pencil and paper.

#### Need of Abacus

We may think or there may arise a question in one’s mind that why do we need abacus or what is the need of teaching abacus to your children? or many questions like such. or why is it very important to teach them solving arithmetical problems using an abacus?

But the fact is that even if there are many advancements made in the recent technology, which is making it possible for human beings to perform complex calculations very easily today; and they can even explore new dimensions in the field of knowledge, the mind of the child is totally blank and it is to be written on. While it is proved that a child’s mind could grab some things with difficulty and some very soon. But it again has the tendency of forgetting learned topics after some time.

However, with the help of abacus a simple to simple arithmetical functions are easily learned; especially multiplication which may seem easier to an adult to perform but difficult for the juvenile to understand. Abacus help your child to easily Visualize - Concentrate and Recall.

#### History and Origins

We know that abacus was first used in 2400 BC by the Babylonians; Do you know that they made it with sand and pebbles. Thereafter it came into existence in the first century in China and slowly spread over many countries. While in India abacus  it is used with beads and was recorded; it also had the use of the abacus at this time. Sometime in the 3,000 years between those two times the abacus was first used with beads. This was possibly in Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt; and it is estimated to have been in Rome or in Greece at around 300 BC.  It is believed that during the Achaemenid Empire, around 600 BC the Persians first began to use the abacus. While there is no clear evidence on when Indians started using abacus.

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## Mark Your Calendars For This Summer’s Great American Eclipse

The US Postal Service is planning to issue a unique stamp in honor of this summer’s total solar eclipse. The stamp is being released on Tuesday with a photo of a total solar eclipse captured in Libya more than a decade ago.

However, the first stamp to use was called thermo-chromic ink. The uniqueness in this stamp is it changes its color. When the stamp is untouched it is ablack eclipse and when your finger touches the stamp, the image changes to the moon one on the right; and then once the stamp cools, the black eclipse returns back.

Did you know that the next real full solar eclipse is expected to happen on August 21st, 2017? For a swath of the country from Portland, Oregon, to Charleston, South Carolina, it will look like somebody just turned off the sun in the middle of the day. While St. Louis falls in the pathway of the eclipse, and even if you live elsewhere in North America, a part of the sun will partly disappear near midday.

This day is being called“The Great American Eclipse.” So mark it on your calendar, down to the millisecond.

As per science, it’s been 99 years since a total solar eclipse crossed the country from the Pacific to the Atlantic; the complete solar eclipse was on June 8th, 1918, which crossed from Washington to Florida.

During this celestial event, the moon will pass between the sun and the Earth, appearing to block the sun for almost an hour or more. If you want to replicate an eclipse you can do it by holding a flashlight and waving your hand slowly across it. However, when the moon blocks the sun, it will cast two types of shadows the umbral is a small shadow cast on Earth where people will be able to see a total eclipse. While others will experience the penumbral shadow, where they will experience a partial eclipse. Salem, Oregon, will be one of the first towns to see this total eclipse, while Charleston will be one among the last. Kansas City, Nashville and St. Louis are some of the other cities that will have a good chance of seeing the sun totally covered.

Space enthusiasts have already started to get excited about this rare eclipse and some, like us, are counting the days down. While many of others are looking for a place to see it closer and booking hotels for the big moment.

The actual question to you is, have you figured out where you will be on August 21st to see this amazing event take place?

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## 9/27— Oktoberfest begins in Germany

2016 Oktoberfest begins in Munich; the Beer lovers from all around the world are ready to stream into the Munich's Theresienwiese for the start of this year's cheer with beer Oktoberfest. This is going to be the 183rd Oktoberfest in Munich, Germany.

#### What is Oktoberfest all about?

The Oktoberfest began on October 12, 1810, to celebrate the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria, who later became the King Ludwig I. He married to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen, according to Oktoberfest de. The celebrations ran through October 17, for five days after the marriage. A large fest was organized in front of the Sendlinger Tor, one of the gates that lead towards to Munich. The celebrations were the highest moments for the people o Munich and the festivities included horse races which became later the Oktoberfest custom lasting until today since 1938.

#### History

While in the year 1811, an agricultural fair was added, and by 1818 beer pubs were started alongside with the performers. So starting from then, it became a great traveler attraction and a great opportunity for the visitors to learn more about Bavaria, its people, and culture.

Munich Oktoberfest is held in the month of September, as the weather is milder than the Octobers. The fest lasts for almost sixteen days, beginning on a Saturday in September and ends on the first Sunday of October. Already the horse racing was ended in 1938, the other events continued over the years with the exception of wartime.

Since 1887 lederhosen and dirndls are the traditional wear for the attendees. When the sharp dot hits at 12 noon on Saturday, September 17th, The Munich’s mayor Dieter Reiter will tap the first barrel declaring the "Wiesn“ - as per Munich people they call it-  officially open.  The fest begins with a parade, and then it’s the time you can see everyone with big beer mugs cheering each other.  You will see the City mayor and the other civic leaders, followed by a horse-drawn brewer’s carts, bands, and townspeople wearing the traditional costumes. The parade ends at the oldest tent at the Oktoberfest, the Schottenhamel Tent where the mayor starts the fest with the first keg of beer and then the toasting begins.  It is estimated that more than 7,000,000 people attended the opening ceremony.

The six major brewers of the Oktoberfest Maerzen beer in Munich will be found in the seven halls where there will be live music throughout the day and evening. Here are the six major brewers: Lowenbrau, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbrauhaus, Spaten, Augustiner, and Paulaner.

You will find people dancing and screaming outside the beer tents, with the music, sideshows, carnival rides and lot of delicious German food serving.

While kids below the age six must leave the tents before 8.pm; even they are in the company of their parents. For families you will find extra discounts on particular days, and everything will be served to eat like; wursts of beef, chicken, pork, veal, slices of beef, pieces of chicken, sauerkraut, variety of potato salads, cabbage, onions, and of course pretzels to be enjoyed with a large stein of favorite beer.

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## 9/22 — Autumn Equinox Begins

Fall comes year after year, but the arrival of waiting for autumn is still very special for all of us. One day late in the summer, we will feel the subtle crispness in the air. Before you are aware of it, you can see the spice colors of the pumpkin everywhere and on everything.  We all will be wrapped in sweaters and wear boots and seen in shades of orange, after slogging in the hot august, it excites us.

We should thank the autumnal equinox for this exciting shift from the hot and sultry summer to foggy fall. While most of us are aware of when the first day of autumn hits the lands on the calendar, but there is more to the equinox.

#### When do the Seasons of the Year Begin?

Here are the times & dates for the four seasons as per Eastern Time.

#### What is the Autumnal Equinox?

The autumn equinox happens every year on September either on 22nd, 23rd or even sometimes on 24th depending on the calendar. This is considering as the astronomical start of the fall in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Southern Hemisphere.

The name equinox comes from Latin aequus (equal) and nox (night) — “equal night”; which means the day and night are about the same duration of time. During this equinox period, the Sun crosses what we call the “celestial equator” from north to south.  During this period, the amount of nighttime and daytime will be roughly equal to each other.

The other definition for autumn equinox is nights of below freezing temperatures are combined with days of temperatures below 70 degrees Fahrenheit.

From here on the temperatures will slowly begin to drop and the days light will start to get shorter than the nights that means the hours of daylight will decline.

#### Enjoy the Northern Lights

You have a chance to catch and enjoy the northern light in the month of September. As September rolls in you enjoy the autumn equinox and can easily catch the increase of aurora borealis display for those who are located at Northern Hemisphere. As per NASA, the equinoxes are prime time for Northern Lights and you will find more geomagnetic activities to take place in the fall time and spring, than in the summer or winter.

#### Celebrated Across the World

There are many cultures across the world which host feasts to celebrate the September equinox.

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## International Talk like a Pirate Day

International Talk Like a Pirate Day – ITLAPD is a parody holiday celebrated for the first time in 1995 on September 19. This holiday was created by John Baur (Ol' Chumbucket) and Mark Summers (Cap'n Slappy) of Albany, Oregon, U.S., out of respect for World War II’s D-Day. However, this day was a quite low event until 2002; when it received media awareness via syndicated humor columnist Dave Barry. If you see today it is celebrated all around the world as a way to increase funds for charity organizations, Childhood Cancer Support and Marie Curie Cancer Care.

#### History

On June 6, 1995, a group of men were playing racquetball with all excitement throughout the day they were shouting and encouraging each other. But for reasons unbeknownst to them, they started shouting in piratical slang at each other. From then it took on a life of its own. By the end of the game, the players realized that it was essential that they create a holiday to celebrate which encouraged the use of such a fine language. The one thing they needed was the date to celebrate, but due respect for the adherence of the Normandy landings, they chose summer’s ex-wife's birthday, as it would be easy for him to keep in mind.

This was just an inside joke between the two friends John Baur and Mark Summers, but later the holiday gained publicity when John Baur and Mark Summers sent a letter about the created holiday to the American syndicated columnist and author of a great number of books Dave Barry in 2002. Barry liked the idea and he promoted the holiday, and it’s been one of the amazing years soon after another and people all over the country started celebrating this auspicious holiday.

#### Pirates — Criminals at Sea

Pirates are people who commend acts of robbery and fighting at sea. This was there since the seas are open to being used to transport the goods and the people from one part of the world to other. Many famous people who used to travel through sea were captured by pirates.

Traditionally if we see pirates were considered to be the most disgraceful human beings. In many countries, the acts of piracy were punishable by torture and death. Even today piracy is considered as outstandingly bad crime at par with other terrible crimes such as sedition.

#### Parody Version

While from the 18th century itself the image of pirates got a makeover of being cruel criminals to being a somewhat parody. They were shown with sporting eye patches, with a large colored handkerchief or a tricorne hat.  They were seen always accompanied by a pet, frequently with a parrot or a monkey; they speak a special version of the English language, which is again grammatically wrong, and often interspersed with growls.

#### How to Celebrate?

• Along with kids, men and women are seen dressed like swashbuckling pirates on this day.
• You will have completions held in your local communities and will be eligible to grab bonus if you are able to carry a pet on your shoulder, that can be a parrot or a monkey.
• You will enjoy when you speak like a pirate the whole day. Mix together your speech with grunts and growls and slur your word that’s enough. Try to call your pals “matey”.  No good grammar on this day.
• Plan your day and host a pirate-themed party and ask your guests to dress up like a pirate.

#### Did You Know?

A famous Englishman William Dampier was the first person to explore parts of what today Australia and he is also the first person to circumnavigate the world thrice. He is also known as the English pirate responsible for introducing many words in the English language which are still is use today. Some of those words include chopsticks, caress, posse, barbecue, and snug.

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## Panama Canal Expansion Program – Part II

#### THE THIRD SET OF LOCKS PROJECT - What is it?

The Third Set of Locks project is the most momentous part of the Expansion Program. The main of this expansion is to entail the construction of the two new lock complexes in the Pacific and Atlantic sides of the Panama Canal and to create a wider and third lane of traffic for bigger ships. Each lock compound will have three steps.

The Contract was awarded toThe International Consortium Grupo Unidos por el Canal, S.A. (GUPC).

#### What was the official time the expansion program began?

Work to expand the Panama Canal has officially begun in September 2007.

The expansion program of Panama Canal has become a significant source of job opportunities for many people who were jobless and are of need. Since the execution of this program, more than 30,000 jobs were created along with the training programs for the professionals in different job fields.

#### Where will the new locks be located?

One lock will be located on the Pacific side to the southwest of the existing Miraflores Locks. The other lock will be located to the east of the existing Gatun Locks.

#### How do they work?

While each lock complex has three chambers; and the configuration will be similar for the existing Gatun Locks. However this project has created a new lane with an additional lock on each side, given at a capacity to handle vessels up to forty-nine meters (160 feet) wide, 366 meters (1,200 feet) long and fifteen meters (50 feet) deep, or with a cargo volume of up to 170,000 DWT and 12,000 TEU.

There are sixteen gates that are required for the new locks execution and the total sixteen rolling gates are fixed eight on each new locks complex.

#### Pacific Access Channel

What is the Pacific Access Channel?

The official work to expand the Panama Canal has begun initially in September2007; with dry-excavation work to create the Pacific Access Channel which will link the Third Set of Locks on the Pacific side towards the Culebra Cut. As per the design, the project consists of four phases such as PAC1, PAC2, PAC3, and PAC4.

The first three dry-excavation phases Pacific Access Channel 1 and Pacific Access Channel 3 have been already been completed and the work calls for the excavation of around 50 million cubic meters of material; till date, the required depth to allow navigation by vessels with deeper draft has already been achieved.

#### Raising Gatun Lake’s Maximum Operating Level

What does the project of raising Gatun Lake’s maximum operating level entails?

This project consists of the maximum raising level of Gatun Lake from 26.7 – 27.1 meters; with the focus to improve the Canal’s water supply. This expansion program enables the additional water storage capacity for Gatun Lake by nearly 200 plus million cubic meters and allows approximately 1,100 additional transits every year.

The project calls to modify the specific structures in Gatun and Pedro Miguel locks.

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## 2016 Summer Paralympics

2016 Summer Paralympics — Brazilian Portuguese: Jogos Paralimpicos de Verao de 2016 is the 15th summer Paralympic Games. These games are held every 4 years for athletes who suffer from various disabilities. The Summer Paralympics Games are the major international attraction for multi-sport events for these athletes. These games are governed by the International Paralympics Committee, and will be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 7 -18 2016. While these games mark a Latin American and South American city hosts events, the second Southern Hemisphere city and nation, being the first 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, and hosting events for the first time in a Lusophone – Portuguese speaking country. These games will also see the introduction of two new sports to the Paralympic program – canoeing and the Paratriathlon.

Just as India sent its leading delegation to the 2016 Rio Olympics, the Paralympics will also represent 19 athletes from the nation, this being the highest sent number for the event till date.

The main aim to start these games is to provide an equal platform for athletes with disabilities and to showcase their skills at a stage that helps them to represent their own country. In order to differentiate the difference between various categories of legitimate disabilities, the committee has come up with 10 categories, as such as impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.

Other than Indian athletes, the most favorite athletes overall are two visually impaired athletes Omara Durand of Cuba and Jason Smyth of Ireland. Both of the athletes are likely to be the fastest woman and man over 100 meters.

Tatyana McFadden from America is hoping to become the first track and field athlete to win gold medals at one of the Paralympic Games. A 74-year-old Libby Kosmala of Australia is contending her 12th Paralympics; Jonas Jacobsson 51, of Sweden in his 10th. Both of them are in shooting. Siamand Rahman of Iran will try to become the first Paralympian to lift 300 kilos in powerlifting and Zahra Nemati who was the flag bearer for Iran in the Rio Olympics will be the first Iranian woman to win gold in either the Olympics or Paralympics. This athlete has won gold in archery in Paralympics London.

#### Torch Relay

The Paralympic torch relay will begin with five individual flames, which represent to five regions of Brazil. Along with the five flames, the sixth flame will also lit in Stoke Mandeville, Great Britain, which will be united to form a single Paralympic flame. These flames will be relayed through Rio on September 6 and 7, en route to its lighting at the Maracanã during the opening ceremony.

#### Participating Nations

The 159 National Paralympic Committees are participating at the Summer Paralympic Games 2016, and a total of 4,342 athletes are taking part this year. The number of athletes being sent for each nation is shown beside each nation.

#### Sports

Around 22 sports events are scheduled to be contested at the 2016 Summer Paralympics. The committee has added two new sports to the Paralympics in Rio; canoeing and the triathlon.

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## Panama Canal Expansion - Part 1

#### What is Expansion Program of Panama Canal?

The Panama Canal expansion is the largest project at the Canal since its original building; it is also known as “The Third Set of Locks Project”.  This project will create a new lane of traffic along the Canal through its construction process of a new set of locks, by doubling the waterway’s capacity. This will add a new lane to clear of traffic allowing the bigger number of ships, and increase the width and depth of the lanes and locks allowing larger ships to pass. However the existing locks allow only the passage of vessels that can carry up to 5,000 TEUs.  Whereas, the new larger size of ships called New Panamax are about one and a half times the Post- Panamax size and be able to carry over thrice as much cargo; which means up to .15,000 – 14,000 TEUs.

#### The project consists of several components such as:

• New Locks — Third Set of Locks Project
• Direct Impact on Economies of Scale and International Marine Trade
• Widened and deepened existing channels
• The maximum operating water level of Gatun Lake raised
• Improvements to water supply

#### History

The Panama Canal Expansion project is formally proposed on April 2, 2006, by then Panamanian President Martin Torrijos;  saying that it would transform Panama into a first World country. This proposal was approved by National Referendum with 76.8 majorities on October 22, and the Cabinet and National assembly followed suit. Then the project formally began in 2007.

It was primarily announced that the Canal expansion would be finished by August 2014 to match with the 100th anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal. However, due to various setbacks, strikes and disputes with the construction group over cost over runs dragged the completion date to several times. Above to then the additional difficulties like seepage from the new locks was also one reason to the due.  The Panama Canal expansion was opened on June 26, 2016. The expansion doubled the Canal’s capacity and has a direct impact on economies of scale and international naval trade.

The program is also expected to create demand for ports to handle big ships with heavy capacity.  Several Unites states Eastern seaboard ports will be ready for this heavy capacity and large ships, other considerations for renovations include dredging, bridge raising and blasting. While the UK port of Southampton can handle post-Panamax Vessels and is expanding the capacity of the port to handle larger ships, the Port of Liverpool was anticipated to be capable by the end of 2015, but it was delayed until mid of 2016; while the others are considering such expansion.

Let us look at some key points which will help you understand more about Panama Canal and it's Expansion program.

#### The capacity of the expanded Panama Canal

While the existing locks allow the capacity up to 5,000 TEUs of the passage of vessels; thus after the extension program, the shipment capacity with the Post-Panamax Vessels along the Canal is up to 13,000-15,000 TEUs.

#### What is the main purpose of this Expansion Program?

The main idea behind the Expansion Program is to amplify the current capacity and to let bigger ships. As per the survey, the expansion also allows the demand growth of enhanced customer service and helps to double the new Canal’s capacity. This will also add an impact on economies of scale and international marine trade; and help maintain the Canal’s competitiveness and value the marine route through Panama’s extension.

#### What is the estimated price of this Expansion Program?

Till now it is estimated to US\$5.25 billion.

#### How was it Financed?

To obtain the estimated finance and to complete this extension program of the waterway, the Panama Canal Authority has signed multiple contracts with a group of bilateral and multilateral credit institutions.

#### What was the actual date it began?

The actual expansion work was officially begun in September 2007. This extension has helped many people with different roles and created plenty number of job opportunities since its implementation along with the training programs for the professionals in different roles.

#### How does the program deal with Archaeological findings?

In every project the Archaeological findings add a significant role, thus happened with this extension program also. The Panama Canal Authority took great efforts to protect the cultural heritage, and valuable archaeological items that were found such as; the 16th-century Spanish dagger, bottles dated from last century, and pre-Colombian arrowheads have also been recovered from the excavation sites, all the findings were restored and preserved safely.

#### The Paleontological Findings

The PC Authority has signed a contract with the paleontological research center — STRI Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 2012. As a result of the work; the STRI has found 8,862 items; and all these items were collected and then cataloged. Among them, 5,377 items were made up of rock and sediments and remaining 3,485 items are of fossils.

The activities under the Panama Canal Expansion Program bear by strict environmental values. The Canal also conducts wildlife rescue and relocation actions to protect the environment. By doing such activities the authority has rescued many mammals, birds, and reptiles and relocated to safe areas.

We will come up with the next version on this blog soon with more details on the expansion program. Until then keep reading.

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## NASA’s Juno Reaches Jupiter

Where is the Juno was the question roaming since few months the time it started its travel. Now Juno has reached the destination Jupiter. After almost five years of its journey to the solar system’s largest planet  NASA’s spacecraft Juno finally entered the Jupiter’s orbit during a 35 minute engine burn as per NASA and the final confirmation had completed and was received on Earth at 8.53 p.m. PDT July 4 Monday (11:53 p.m. EDT).

Independence Day is the day we all celebrated what matter the date is, but there is another reason to cheer up the people of NASA and the Americans on Juno reaching the Jupiter.  Juno is at Jupiter says the NASA’s administrator Charlie Bolden. This is the most awaited reason for the NASA to celebrate about their mission which is going boldly where no spacecraft has gone before. With this mission NASA is going to investigate the unknown facts about the Jupiter’s massive radiation belts to look into the deep planet’s interior. While this will also help how Jupiter was born and how the entire solar system was evolved.

The successful confirmation about the orbit insertion was received from Juno tracking data which was monitored at the navigation facility at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory – JPL in Pasadena, California and as well as at the Lockheed Martin Juno operations center in Littleton, Colorado. While the telemetry and the other tracking data details were received by NASA’s Deep Space Network antennas in California, Goldstone and Canberra – Australia.

Scott Bolton, the principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio was all excited about the great mission, the great team and great spacecraft did and expresses him by saying that this is the one time he don’t mind being stuck in a windowless room on a night of July 4th.

#### How this Happened

While the preplanned events leading up to the orbital insertion engine burn included the changing spacecraft attitude by a point to main engine in the desired direction and then increased the spacecraft’s rotation rate from 2 to 5 revolutions per a minute (RPM) to help stabilize it.

The burn of Juno’s 645-Newton Leros-1b chief engine has begun on time at 8:18 p.m. PDT (11:18 p.m. EDT), declining the spacecraft’s velocity by 1,212 miles per hour and 542 meters per second allowing Juno to be captured in orbit around Jupiter, this happened almost immediately after the burn was completed. Juno turned so that the sun’s rays might once again arrive at the 18,698 individual solar cells to give Juno its energy.

The spacecraft worked perfectly; and Jupiter orbit insertion was a huge step and the most challenging mission plan for NASA which was successful. NASA has clarified that there are some more that need to occur before they can give the science team the mission they are looking for. However the next few months are going to be busy months for both Juno’s mission and science teams who are going to perform the final testing on the subsystems of the spacecraft; final calibration of science instruments and on some science collections.

#### Juno’s Mission

The main principal of Juno is to understand the origin and progress of Jupiter. Juno will further investigate the existence of a rigid planetary core, map Jupiter's deep magnetic field with the help of its suite of nine science instruments. These instruments help to measure the amount of water and ammonia in the deep atmosphere, and watch the planet's auroras. This mission will also help the NASA to take a giant step forward in understanding how the giant planets form and play the role in putting together the rest of the solar system.

#### Launching of Juno

The Juno spacecraft was launched on Aug 5, 2011 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.  NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Juno mission. Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver built the spacecraft; Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the Science Mission Directorate agency. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.

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